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Mechanical role of actinotrichia in shaping the caudal fin of zebrafish.
Nakagawa H, Kuroda J, Aramaki T, Kondo S.
Dev Biol. 2021 Sep 17;481:52-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2021.09.003.


The Genetic Basis of Morphological Diversity in Domesticated Goldfish.
Kon T, Omori Y, Fukuta K, Wada H, Watanabe M, Chen Z, Iwasaki M, Mishina T, Matsuzaki SS, Yoshihara D, Arakawa J, Kawakami K, Toyoda A, Burgess SM, Noguchi H, Furukawa T.
Curr Biol. 2020 Jun 22;30(12):2260-2274.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.034.

Pivot burrowing of scarab beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) larva.
Adachi H, Ozawa M, Yagi S, Seita M, Kondo S.
Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 16;11(1):14594. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93915-0.

Three-dimensional topology optimization model to simulate the external shapes of bone.
Sakashita M, Yamasaki S, Yaji K, Kawamoto A, Kondo S.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Jun 16;17(6):e1009043. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009043

Computational analyses decipher the primordial folding coding the 3D structure of the beetle horn.
Matsuda K, Gotoh H, Adachi H, Inoue Y, Kondo S.
Sci Rep. 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1017. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-79757-2.

Effective nonlocal kernels on reaction-diffusion networks

Shin-Ichiro Ei 1, Hiroshi Ishii 2, Shigeru Kondo 3, Takashi Miura 4, Yoshitaro Tanaka 5

J Theor Biol. 2021 Jan 21;509:110496. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2020.110496.



Pattern blending enriches the diversity of animal colorations
Seita Miyazawa
Science Advances 6(49):eabb9107 (2020)


Genetical control of 2D pattern and depth of the primordial furrow that prefigures 3D shape of the rhinoceros beetle horn.

Adachi H, Matsuda K, Niimi T, Kondo S, Gotoh H.

Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 29;10(1):18687. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75709-y.PMID: 33122767

The Physical Role of Mesenchymal Cells Driven by the Actin Cytoskeleton Is Essential for the Orientation of Collagen Fibrils in Zebrafish Fins

Junpei Kuroda1,2, Takeshi Itabashi2, Atsuko H. Iwane2, Toshihiro Aramaki1 and Shigeru Kondo1*

Front. Cell Dev. Biol., 14 October 2020 |

Cryo-EM structures of undocked innexin-6 hemichannels in phospholipids

Burendei, B., Shinozaki, R., Watanabe, M., Terada, T., Tani, K., Fujiyoshi, Y., Oshima, A.

Sci. Adv. 6(7):eaax3157  2020 (PMID:32095518 DOI:10.1126/sciadv.aax3157

Method for disarranging the pigment pattern of zebrafish by optogenetics.

Toshihiro Aramaki, Shigeru Kondo

Dev. Biol. 460(1):12-19  2020 (PMID:30578760 DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.12.019)


Structure and development of the complex helmet of treehoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Membracidae)
Haruhiko Adachi, Keisuke Matsuda, Kenji Nishida, Paul Hanson, Shigeru Kondo & Hiroki Gotoh 

Zoological Letters volume 6, Article number: 3 (2020) 


The minimal gap-junction network among melanophores and xanthophores required for stripe pattern formation in zebrafish
Yuu Usui, Toshihiro Aramaki, Shigeru Kondo, Masakatsu Watanabe
Development 2019 146: dev181065 doi: 10.1242/dev.181065 Published 15 November 2019


Comparative morphological examination of vertebral bodies of teleost fish using high‐resolution micro‐CT scans

Misaki Sakashita Mao Sato and Shigeru Kondo

Journal of Morphology 2019



Roles of basal keratinocytes in actinotrichia formation

Junpei Kuroda, Atsuko H. Iwane, and Shigeru Kondo

Mechanisms of Development, Volume 153, October 2018, Pages 54-63


Simple rules for construction of a geometric nest structure by pufferfish

Mizuuchi R., Kawase H., Shin H., Iwai D. and Kondo S.

Scientific Reports 2018, volume 8, Article number: 12366


Melanophore multinucleation pathways in zebrafish

Usui YKondo SWatanabe M

Dev Growth Differ.doi: 10.1111/dgd.12564


Anisotropy of cell division and epithelial sheet bending via apical constriction shape the complex folding pattern of beetle horn primordia.

Adachi H, Matsuda K, Niimi T, Inoue Y, Kondo S, Gotoh H.

Mech Dev. 2018 Jun 16. pii: S0925-4773(18)30080-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mod.2018.06.003.


Flexibility of pigment cell behavior permits the robustness of skin pattern formation.

Sawada R, Aramaki T, Kondo S.

Genes Cells. 2018 : 10.1111/gtc.doi May 23. 12596.



Complex furrows in a 2D epithelial sheet code the 3D structure of a beetle horn.

Matsuda K, Gotoh H, Tajika Y, Sushida T, Aonuma H, Niimi T, Akiyama M, Inoue Y, Kondo S.

Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 24;7(1):13939. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14170-w.




An updated kernel-based Turing model for studying the mechanism of biological pattern formation
Kondo S.
J Theor Biol. 2016 Nov 10;414:120-127.


Suture pattern formation in ammonites and the unknown rear mantle structure
Inoue S and Kondo S.
Sci. Rep. 2016 Sep 19;6:33689


Two different functions of Connexin43 confer two different bone phenotypes in zebrafish.
Misu A, Yamanaka H, Aramaki T, Kondo S, Skerrett IM, Iovine MK, Watanabe M.
J Biol Chem. 2016 Apr 25. pii: jbc.M116.720110.


The Physiological Characterization of Connexin41.8 and Connexin39.4, Which Are Involved in the Striped Pattern Formation of Zebrafish.
Watanabe M, Sawada R, Aramaki T, Skerrett IM, Kondo S.
J Biol Chem. 2016 Jan 15;291(3):1053-63.



Rotating pigment cells exhibit an intrinsic chirality.

Yamanaka H, Kondo S.
Genes Cells. 2015 Jan;20(1):29-35


Fish pigmentation. : Comment on "Local reorganization of xanthophores fine-tunes and colors the striped pattern of zebrafish".
Watanabe M, Kondo S.
Science.(Technical comment) 2015 Apr 17;348(6232):297


Is pigment patterning in fish skin determined by the Turing mechanism? (review article)
Watanabe M, Kondo S.
Trends Genet. 2015 Feb;31(2):88-96.


Black, yellow, or silver: which one leads skin pattern formation? (commentary)
Kondo S, Watanabe M.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015 Jan;28(1):2-4.


Tetraspanin 3c requirement for pigment cell interactions and boundary formation in zebrafish adult pigment stripes.
Inoue S, Kondo S, Parichy DM, Watanabe M.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Mar;27(2):190-200.


Involvement of Delta/Notch signaling in zebrafish adult pigment stripe patterning.
Hamada H, Watanabe M, Lau HE, Nishida T, Hasegawa T, Parichy DM, Kondo S.
Development. 2014 Jan;141(2):318-24.
Erratum in: Development. 2014 Mar;141(6):1418.


In vitro analysis suggests that difference in cell movement during direct interaction can generate various pigment patterns in vivo.
Yamanaka H, Kondo S.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 4;111(5):1867-72.

Wing vein patterns of the Hemiptera insect Orosangajaponicus differ among individuals.

Yoshimoto E, Kondo S.
Interface Focus. 2012 Aug 6;2(4):451-6.


Polyamine sensitivity of gap junctions is required for skin pattern formation in zebrafish.
Watanabe M, Watanabe D, Kondo S.
Sci Rep. 2012;2:473.


Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11
Eom DS, Inoue S, Patterson LB, Gordon TN, Slingwine R, Kondo S, Watanabe M, Parichy DM.
PLoS Genet. 2012;8(8):e1002899. doi: 10.1371


Pigment pattern formation by contact-dependent depolarization.
Inaba M, Yamanaka H, Kondo S.
Science. 2012 Feb 10;335(6069):677.


Changing clothes easily: connexin41.8 regulates skin pattern variation.
Watanabe M, Kondo S.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012 Feb 7. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2012.00984.x.


Periodic stripe formation by a Turing mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate.
Economou AD, Ohazama A, Porntaveetus T, Sharpe PT, Kondo S, Basson MA, Gritli-Linde A, Cobourne MT, GreenJB.
Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 19;44(3):348-51. doi: 10.1038/ng.1090.



Reaction-Diffusion Model as a Framework for Understanding Biological Pattern Formation
Kondo S., Miura T.
Science 329, 1616 (2010);DOI: 10.1126/science.1179047


Blending of animal colour patterns by hybridization.
Miyazawa S, Okamoto M, Kondo S.
Nat Commun. 2010 Sep;1(6):doi:10.1038/ncomms1071


How animals get their skin patterns: fish pigment pattern as a live Turing wave.
Kondo S, Iwashita M, Yamaguchi M.
Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53(5-6):851-6. Review.


Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the generation of Turing patterns.
Nakamasu A, Takahashi G, Kanbe A, Kondo S.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26;106(21):8429-34. Epub 2009 May 11.


Theoretical analysis of mechanisms that generate the pigmentation pattern of animals.
Kondo S, Shirota H.
Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Feb;20(1):82-9. Epub 2008 Oct 19. Review.


Melanophores in the stripes of adult zebrafish do not have the nature to gather but disperse when they have the space to move
Takahashi G and Kondo S
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009, 21; 677?686


Pattern regulation in the stripe of zebrafish suggests an underlying dynamic and autonomous mechanism.
Yamaguchi M, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 20;104(12):4790-3. Epub 2007 Mar 12.


Pigment pattern in jaguar/obelix zebrafish is caused by a Kir7.1 mutation: implications for the regulation of melanosome movement.
Iwashita M, Watanabe M, Ishii M, Chen T, Johnson SL, Kurachi Y, Okada N, Kondo S.
PLoS Genet. 2006 Nov 24;2(11):e197.


Spot pattern of leopard Danio is caused by the mutation in the zebrafish connexin41.8 gene.
Watanabe M, Iwashita M, Ishii M, Kurachi Y, Kawakami A, Kondo S, Okada N.
EMBO Rep. 2006 Sep;7(9):893-7. Epub 2006 Jul 14.


Noise-resistant and synchronized oscillation of the segmentation clock.
Horikawa K, Ishimatsu K, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S, Takeda H.
Nature. 2006 Jun 8;441(7094):719-23


Pigment cell distributions in different tissues of the zebrafish, with special reference to the striped pigment pattern.
Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kondo S.
Dev Dyn. 2005 Oct;234(2):293-300.


Traveling stripes on the skin of a mutant mouse.
Suzuki N, Hirata M, Kondo S.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 19;100(17):9680-5. Epub 2003 Jul 31.


Stripes, spots, or reversed spots in two-dimensional Turing systems.
Shoji H, Iwasa Y, Kondo S.
J Theor Biol. 2003 Oct 7;224(3):339-50.


Pigment cell organization in the hypodermis of zebrafish.
Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kanemaru T, Shibata Y, Kondo S.
Dev Dyn. 2003 Aug;227(4):497-503.


Origin of directionality in the fish stripe pattern.
Shoji H, Mochizuki A, Iwasa Y, Hirata M, Watanabe T, Hioki S, Kondo S.
Dev Dyn. 2003 Apr;226(4):627-33.


The reaction-diffusion system: a mechanism for autonomous pattern formation in the animal skin.
Kondo S.
Genes Cells. 2002 Jun;7(6):535-41. Review.








































































Directionality of stripes formed by anisotropic reaction-diffusion models.
Shoji H, Iwasa Y, Mochizuki A, Kondo S.
J Theor Biol. 2002 Feb 21;214(4):549-61.


Zebrafish leopard gene as a component of the putative reaction-diffusion system.
Asai R, Taguchi E, Kume Y, Saito M, Kondo S.
Mech Dev. 1999 Dec;89(1-2):87-92.


A reaction-diffusion wave on the skin of the marine angelfish Pomacanthus
Kondo S, Arai R
Nature 1995;376, 765 - 768


A mechanistic model for morphogenesis and regeneration of limbs and imaginal discs.
Kondo S.
Mech Dev. 1992 Dec;39(3):161-70.